Modeling mitosis with pop beads answer key
Meiosis Classroom Demonstration. Photo guide and Word doc assignment included. Supplies Required for Meiosis Activity:. I n this exercise, the original cell starts with six chromosomes, so the following supplies are needed. It helps keep materials organized if interlocking beads and string are each in separate, smaller baggies.
Photo 1. First string one interlocking bead onto each strand of chromatin. Set one of each type of pipe cleaner 6 aside. Those will come into play when DNA replicates. Photo 2. It makes exercise too complicated and messy. Photo 3. Snap together the two interlocking beads that represent the centromeres, bringing the other six pipe cleaners into play.
Photo 4. Close-up of replicated chromatin. Meiosis I:. Prophase Ichromatin condenses into chromosomes. Twist pipe cleaners so that they are curly. Metaphase Ihomologous chromosomes line up at cell equator.
Anaphase Ihomologous chromosomes move toward opposite poles of the cell. Early Telophase Ihomologous chomosomes have migrated to opposite end of the cell.
Cytokinesis begins. Photo 5. Meiosis II:. Prophase II not pictured. Metaphase II, sister chromatids line up at equator of each cell. Anaphase II, sister chromatids separate and chromosomes move to either end of the cells.
Early telophase II, chromosomes have migrated to opposite ends of cells, cytokinesis begins. Meiosis Classroom Activity. Virtual Cell Biology. You have free access to a large collection of materials used in a college-level introductory Cell Biology Course. Science Prof Online. Virtual Biology. Need a Meiosis Refresher?All cells come from preexisting cells and eukaryotic cells must undergo mitosis in order to form new cells. The replication of a cell is part of the overall cell cycle Figure 1 which is composed of interphase and M phase mitotic phase.
M phase, which consists of mitosis and cytokinesis, is the portion of the cell cycle where the cell divides, reproducing itself. Mitosis is the division of the nucleus and its contents.Modeling Mitosis Lab vid
In mitosis, DNA which has been copied in the S phase of interphase is separated into two individual copies. Each copy will end up in its own cell at the end of M phase. Mitosis has several steps: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase Figure 2. The spindle fibers, which are formed by the cell as mitosis progresses, are used to attach to chromosomes, align them down the middle of the cell, and pull chromosomes apart into their identical individual chromatids which will end up in separate cells.
As mitosis is nearing its end and the cell is in telophase, the cytoplasm also divides so that both new cells will have their own fluid, organelles, etc.
This division of the cytoplasm is called cytokinesis. Mitosis and cytokinesis can be viewed under a microscope. William H.
Peter, MN -- cellab gac. Failure of chromosomes to separate during mitosis or meiosis will result in an incorrect number of chromosomes in daughter cells. This occurrence is known as nondisjunctionand it is often triggered by a lapse during a mitotic checkpoint. Should nondisjunction occur during meiosis, the resulting egg or sperm cell will have an incorrect number of chromosomes; if this sex cell is then fertilized, the fetus will have a chromosomal abnormality.
The term given for having an incorrect number of chromosomes is aneuploidy. A common type of aneuploidy is trisomywhich is when there are 3 copies of a particular chromosome instead of 2. Several common chromosomal abnormalities are listed in the table below.
The most common trisomy that a human can survive is Down syndrome, which occurs at chromosome To diagnose a chromosomal abnormality, doctors use a map of the chromosomes known as a karyotype. Each chromosome pair is laid out side-by-side so it is relatively easy to determine if there are any irregularities. Referring to the karyotype below, it is clear that each chromosome pair is present and of relatively equal length. In order for any aneuploidy to occur, there must be an error during meiosis I or II.
In the image at right, meiosis occurs without error and the resulting gametes are haploid, leading to a diploid zygote. In the next image, a nondisjunction event occurs during meiosis II, resulting in trisomy in the zygote. Most nerve cells in the adult human central nervous system, as well as heart muscle cells, do not divide.
Using a Simulation Activity to Explore and Compare Meiosis and Mitosis
In contrast, cells lining the inside of the small intestine divide frequently. Discuss this difference in terms of why damage to the nervous system and heart muscle cells think stroke or heart attack is so dangerous. What do you think might happen to tissues such as the intestinal lining if a disorder blocked mitotic cell division in all cells of the body?
In order to make a karyotype, cell division is arrested at a point when the chromosomes have condensed and the nuclear envelope has disappeared, but before the sister chromatids separate. Which stage of the cell cycle would be a good point to perform a karyotype? Imagine you are an obstetrician and are performing early genetic testing on a week old fetus. Below is the resulting karyotype. What can you tell about the fetus? Look up the prognosis for any chromosomal abnormalities you may have detected.This lab is a great way to make the many phases of meiosis make sense!
Mitosis and Meiosis Simulation Lab Using Pop Beads (Cell Division)
Having kids work through each phase using the colored beads slows down their conversation and thinking and brings up great questions that help propel them forward to deeper understanding of how mitosis and meiosis compare to each other. It also connects back to our work on the differences between cell division in cancer cells vs. I typically keep the beads out in the classroom so that students can use them as we talk throughout the unit.
Remind students of the work you did in your last session together comparing and contrasting the events in mitosis and meiosis. Tell students that today they will be working with their lab partner using bead models to explore the process of meiosis in more detail. Pass out the modeling meiosis bead lab document. Let students briefly read over the directions for this document and then highlight the procedure and goals:. Ask students to go to their lab tables where they will find their beads and colored pencils in order to begin their pair activity.
Once student pairs arrive at their lab tables, give them five minutes to settle in, look at their materials, consult their activity document, and check in as a team. At this point, all groups should be working with the beads. Circulate as student groups are working. Listen in to see how students are working with their partners and within their table groups to help each other. Below you will find photos of each of the phases of meiosis that students will be simulating with the beads.
I am including them here for you to give you a sense of how the flow of events in meiosis translates into our bead models. Also, you can use these photos later on as a way to help students recall what they know about each phase, specifically as a prompt for vocabulary or even as a writing activity.
Interphase I G1 beads. Interphase I Sunthesis beads. Prophase I beads. Crossing Over in Prophase I beads. Metaphase I beads. Anaphase I beads. Metaphase II beads. Anaphase II beads. Telophase II beads. About halfway through the session, you will notice that students are working with the models with more confidence and ease.
Encourage pairs you saw struggling earlier to revisit their initial responses now that they are more comfortable with both the activity and the process of meiosis. As the activity winds down, ask students to return their materials to their designated spot in the room and return to their desks for our final wrap up. Using the spokesperson protocolask students to share out their answers to the following two prompts:.
Ask students for any questions about meiosis that came up during the lab session. Check out two student work samples below. I chose these two examples as representative of most work I received and two things stand out to me:. Empty Layer. Home Professional Learning.In this guided activity, students will use pop bead kits to assemble and manipulate chromosomes during both types of cell division.
The student handout is 9 pages long. It contains instructions, guided hints to the next step, fill in the blank questions, and spaces to draw each stage of mitosis or meiosis. This product is accompanied by an page teacher guide and answer key. Students will first work through the process of mitosis. The students will build the chromosomes and manipulate them through each phase. They will answer questions and draw their work as they go. Students will do the same for the process of meiosis.
At the end of the 9 page student handout, students will compare and contrast the two types of cell division. You will also receive an page teacher handout. It contains additional instructions for the teacher. The teacher handout contains photographs of the pop beads for each stage. All answers are included. I have found that students have a far greater understanding of the similarities and differences between mitosis and meiosis after we complete this activity. Biology Buzz Words: Cell Division.
Mitosis and Meiosis Powerpoint with Notes. Lab: Kinetics of Cell Division - Mitosis. Mitosis and Meiosis! Chat Lab Stations. Lab: Chromosome Squashes. Mitosis Quiz or Review Sheet. Meiosis Quiz. Crossword Puzzle on Mitosis and Meiosis. Lab: Mitosis in Plant and Animal Cells.In both types of studies, the effect of differences of an independent variable (or variables) on the behavior of the dependent variable are observed. The difference between the two types lies in how the study is actually conducted.
Each can be very effective. Instead, data are gathered and correlations between predictors and response are investigated.
Experiments on human behavior have special concerns. The famous Hawthorne study examined changes to the working environment at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company.
The researchers were interested in determining whether increased illumination would increase the productivity of the assembly line workers. The researchers first measured the productivity in the plant, then modified the illumination in an area of the plant and checked if the changes in illumination affected productivity.
It turned out that productivity indeed improved (under the experimental conditions). However, the study is heavily criticized today for errors in experimental procedures, specifically for the lack of a control group and blindness.
The Hawthorne effect refers to finding that an outcome (in this case, worker productivity) changed due to observation itself. Those in the Hawthorne study became more productive not because the lighting was changed but because they were being observed.
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Ratio measurements have both a meaningful zero value and the distances between different measurements defined, and permit any rescaling transformation. Because variables conforming only to nominal or ordinal measurements cannot be reasonably measured numerically, sometimes they are grouped together as categorical variables, whereas ratio and interval measurements are grouped together as quantitative variables, which can be either discrete or continuous, due to their numerical nature.
Such distinctions can often be loosely correlated with data type in computer science, in that dichotomous categorical variables may be represented with the Boolean data type, polytomous categorical variables with arbitrarily assigned integers in the integral data type, and continuous variables with the real data type involving floating point computation.
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We obtain predictive densities from a stae-of-the-art stochastic volatility (SV) model, which we then tilt towards the second moment of the risk-neutral distribution implied by options prices, while imposing a non-negativity constraint on the equity premium. By combining the backward-looking information contained in the SV model with the forward-looking information from options prices, our procedure delivers sharper predictive densities. Using density forecasts of the U. Series data maintained by Leslie Yancich (Obfuscate( 'brandeis.
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Page updated 2017-12-05 Handle: RePEc:brd:wpaper:99r. Economists have suggested a whole range of variables that investors could or should use to predict: dividend price ratios, dividend yields, earnings-price ratios, dividend payout ratios, net issuing ratios, book-market ratios, interest rates (in various guises), and consumption-based macroeconomic ratios (cay).
Most would have outright hurt. Therefore, we find that, for all practical purposes, the equity premium has not been predictable, and any belief about whether the stock market is now too high or too low has to be based on theoretical prior, not on the empirically variables we have explored.
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